1//
2// coroutine.hpp
3// ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
4//
5// Copyright (c) 2003-2015 Christopher M. Kohlhoff (chris at kohlhoff dot com)
6//
7// Distributed under the Boost Software License, Version 1.0. (See accompanying
8// file LICENSE_1_0.txt or copy at http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt)
9//
10
11#ifndef BOOST_ASIO_COROUTINE_HPP
12#define BOOST_ASIO_COROUTINE_HPP
13
14namespace boost {
15namespace asio {
16namespace detail {
17
18class coroutine_ref;
19
20} // namespace detail
21
22/// Provides support for implementing stackless coroutines.
23/**
24 * The @c coroutine class may be used to implement stackless coroutines. The
25 * class itself is used to store the current state of the coroutine.
26 *
27 * Coroutines are copy-constructible and assignable, and the space overhead is
28 * a single int. They can be used as a base class:
29 *
30 * @code class session : coroutine
31 * {
32 * ...
33 * }; @endcode
34 *
35 * or as a data member:
36 *
37 * @code class session
38 * {
39 * ...
40 * coroutine coro_;
41 * }; @endcode
42 *
43 * or even bound in as a function argument using lambdas or @c bind(). The
44 * important thing is that as the application maintains a copy of the object
45 * for as long as the coroutine must be kept alive.
46 *
47 * @par Pseudo-keywords
48 *
49 * A coroutine is used in conjunction with certain "pseudo-keywords", which
50 * are implemented as macros. These macros are defined by a header file:
51 *
52 * @code #include <boost/asio/yield.hpp>@endcode
53 *
54 * and may conversely be undefined as follows:
55 *
56 * @code #include <boost/asio/unyield.hpp>@endcode
57 *
58 * <b>reenter</b>
59 *
60 * The @c reenter macro is used to define the body of a coroutine. It takes a
61 * single argument: a pointer or reference to a coroutine object. For example,
62 * if the base class is a coroutine object you may write:
63 *
64 * @code reenter (this)
65 * {
66 * ... coroutine body ...
67 * } @endcode
68 *
69 * and if a data member or other variable you can write:
70 *
71 * @code reenter (coro_)
72 * {
73 * ... coroutine body ...
74 * } @endcode
75 *
76 * When @c reenter is executed at runtime, control jumps to the location of the
77 * last @c yield or @c fork.
78 *
79 * The coroutine body may also be a single statement, such as:
80 *
81 * @code reenter (this) for (;;)
82 * {
83 * ...
84 * } @endcode
85 *
86 * @b Limitation: The @c reenter macro is implemented using a switch. This
87 * means that you must take care when using local variables within the
88 * coroutine body. The local variable is not allowed in a position where
89 * reentering the coroutine could bypass the variable definition.
90 *
91 * <b>yield <em>statement</em></b>
92 *
93 * This form of the @c yield keyword is often used with asynchronous operations:
94 *
95 * @code yield socket_->async_read_some(buffer(*buffer_), *this); @endcode
96 *
97 * This divides into four logical steps:
98 *
99 * @li @c yield saves the current state of the coroutine.
100 * @li The statement initiates the asynchronous operation.
101 * @li The resume point is defined immediately following the statement.
102 * @li Control is transferred to the end of the coroutine body.
103 *
104 * When the asynchronous operation completes, the function object is invoked
105 * and @c reenter causes control to transfer to the resume point. It is
106 * important to remember to carry the coroutine state forward with the
107 * asynchronous operation. In the above snippet, the current class is a
108 * function object object with a coroutine object as base class or data member.
109 *
110 * The statement may also be a compound statement, and this permits us to
111 * define local variables with limited scope:
112 *
113 * @code yield
114 * {
115 * mutable_buffers_1 b = buffer(*buffer_);
116 * socket_->async_read_some(b, *this);
117 * } @endcode
118 *
119 * <b>yield return <em>expression</em> ;</b>
120 *
121 * This form of @c yield is often used in generators or coroutine-based parsers.
122 * For example, the function object:
123 *
124 * @code struct interleave : coroutine
125 * {
126 * istream& is1;
127 * istream& is2;
128 * char operator()(char c)
129 * {
130 * reenter (this) for (;;)
131 * {
132 * yield return is1.get();
133 * yield return is2.get();
134 * }
135 * }
136 * }; @endcode
137 *
138 * defines a trivial coroutine that interleaves the characters from two input
139 * streams.
140 *
141 * This type of @c yield divides into three logical steps:
142 *
143 * @li @c yield saves the current state of the coroutine.
144 * @li The resume point is defined immediately following the semicolon.
145 * @li The value of the expression is returned from the function.
146 *
147 * <b>yield ;</b>
148 *
149 * This form of @c yield is equivalent to the following steps:
150 *
151 * @li @c yield saves the current state of the coroutine.
152 * @li The resume point is defined immediately following the semicolon.
153 * @li Control is transferred to the end of the coroutine body.
154 *
155 * This form might be applied when coroutines are used for cooperative
156 * threading and scheduling is explicitly managed. For example:
157 *
158 * @code struct task : coroutine
159 * {
160 * ...
161 * void operator()()
162 * {
163 * reenter (this)
164 * {
165 * while (... not finished ...)
166 * {
167 * ... do something ...
168 * yield;
169 * ... do some more ...
170 * yield;
171 * }
172 * }
173 * }
174 * ...
175 * };
176 * ...
177 * task t1, t2;
178 * for (;;)
179 * {
180 * t1();
181 * t2();
182 * } @endcode
183 *
184 * <b>yield break ;</b>
185 *
186 * The final form of @c yield is used to explicitly terminate the coroutine.
187 * This form is comprised of two steps:
188 *
189 * @li @c yield sets the coroutine state to indicate termination.
190 * @li Control is transferred to the end of the coroutine body.
191 *
192 * Once terminated, calls to is_complete() return true and the coroutine cannot
193 * be reentered.
194 *
195 * Note that a coroutine may also be implicitly terminated if the coroutine
196 * body is exited without a yield, e.g. by return, throw or by running to the
197 * end of the body.
198 *
199 * <b>fork <em>statement</em></b>
200 *
201 * The @c fork pseudo-keyword is used when "forking" a coroutine, i.e. splitting
202 * it into two (or more) copies. One use of @c fork is in a server, where a new
203 * coroutine is created to handle each client connection:
204 *
205 * @code reenter (this)
206 * {
207 * do
208 * {
209 * socket_.reset(new tcp::socket(io_service_));
210 * yield acceptor->async_accept(*socket_, *this);
211 * fork server(*this)();
212 * } while (is_parent());
213 * ... client-specific handling follows ...
214 * } @endcode
215 *
216 * The logical steps involved in a @c fork are:
217 *
218 * @li @c fork saves the current state of the coroutine.
219 * @li The statement creates a copy of the coroutine and either executes it
220 * immediately or schedules it for later execution.
221 * @li The resume point is defined immediately following the semicolon.
222 * @li For the "parent", control immediately continues from the next line.
223 *
224 * The functions is_parent() and is_child() can be used to differentiate
225 * between parent and child. You would use these functions to alter subsequent
226 * control flow.
227 *
228 * Note that @c fork doesn't do the actual forking by itself. It is the
229 * application's responsibility to create a clone of the coroutine and call it.
230 * The clone can be called immediately, as above, or scheduled for delayed
231 * execution using something like io_service::post().
232 *
233 * @par Alternate macro names
234 *
235 * If preferred, an application can use macro names that follow a more typical
236 * naming convention, rather than the pseudo-keywords. These are:
237 *
238 * @li @c BOOST_ASIO_CORO_REENTER instead of @c reenter
239 * @li @c BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD instead of @c yield
240 * @li @c BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK instead of @c fork
241 */
242class coroutine
243{
244public:
245 /// Constructs a coroutine in its initial state.
246 coroutine() : value_(0) {}
247
248 /// Returns true if the coroutine is the child of a fork.
249 bool is_child() const { return value_ < 0; }
250
251 /// Returns true if the coroutine is the parent of a fork.
252 bool is_parent() const { return !is_child(); }
253
254 /// Returns true if the coroutine has reached its terminal state.
255 bool is_complete() const { return value_ == -1; }
256
257private:
258 friend class detail::coroutine_ref;
259 int value_;
260};
261
262
263namespace detail {
264
265class coroutine_ref
266{
267public:
268 coroutine_ref(coroutine& c) : value_(c.value_), modified_(false) {}
269 coroutine_ref(coroutine* c) : value_(c->value_), modified_(false) {}
270 ~coroutine_ref() { if (!modified_) value_ = -1; }
271 operator int() const { return value_; }
272 int& operator=(int v) { modified_ = true; return value_ = v; }
273private:
274 void operator=(const coroutine_ref&);
275 int& value_;
276 bool modified_;
277};
278
279} // namespace detail
280} // namespace asio
281} // namespace boost
282
283#define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_REENTER(c) \
284 switch (::boost::asio::detail::coroutine_ref _coro_value = c) \
285 case -1: if (_coro_value) \
286 { \
287 goto terminate_coroutine; \
288 terminate_coroutine: \
289 _coro_value = -1; \
290 goto bail_out_of_coroutine; \
291 bail_out_of_coroutine: \
292 break; \
293 } \
294 else case 0:
295
296#define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD_IMPL(n) \
297 for (_coro_value = (n);;) \
298 if (_coro_value == 0) \
299 { \
300 case (n): ; \
301 break; \
302 } \
303 else \
304 switch (_coro_value ? 0 : 1) \
305 for (;;) \
306 case -1: if (_coro_value) \
307 goto terminate_coroutine; \
308 else for (;;) \
309 case 1: if (_coro_value) \
310 goto bail_out_of_coroutine; \
311 else case 0:
312
313#define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK_IMPL(n) \
314 for (_coro_value = -(n);; _coro_value = (n)) \
315 if (_coro_value == (n)) \
316 { \
317 case -(n): ; \
318 break; \
319 } \
320 else
321
322#if defined(_MSC_VER)
323# define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD_IMPL(__COUNTER__ + 1)
324# define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK_IMPL(__COUNTER__ + 1)
325#else // defined(_MSC_VER)
326# define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD BOOST_ASIO_CORO_YIELD_IMPL(__LINE__)
327# define BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK BOOST_ASIO_CORO_FORK_IMPL(__LINE__)
328#endif // defined(_MSC_VER)
329
330#endif // BOOST_ASIO_COROUTINE_HPP
331