1/*
2 * Copyright (C) 1995 Linus Torvalds
3 *
4 * Support of BIGMEM added by Gerhard Wichert, Siemens AG, July 1999
5 *
6 * Memory region support
7 * David Parsons <orc@pell.chi.il.us>, July-August 1999
8 *
9 * Added E820 sanitization routine (removes overlapping memory regions);
10 * Brian Moyle <bmoyle@mvista.com>, February 2001
11 *
12 * Moved CPU detection code to cpu/${cpu}.c
13 * Patrick Mochel <mochel@osdl.org>, March 2002
14 *
15 * Provisions for empty E820 memory regions (reported by certain BIOSes).
16 * Alex Achenbach <xela@slit.de>, December 2002.
17 *
18 */
19
20/*
21 * This file handles the architecture-dependent parts of initialization
22 */
23
24#include <linux/sched.h>
25#include <linux/mm.h>
26#include <linux/mmzone.h>
27#include <linux/screen_info.h>
28#include <linux/ioport.h>
29#include <linux/acpi.h>
30#include <linux/sfi.h>
31#include <linux/apm_bios.h>
32#include <linux/initrd.h>
33#include <linux/memblock.h>
34#include <linux/seq_file.h>
35#include <linux/console.h>
36#include <linux/root_dev.h>
37#include <linux/highmem.h>
38#include <linux/export.h>
39#include <linux/efi.h>
40#include <linux/init.h>
41#include <linux/edd.h>
42#include <linux/iscsi_ibft.h>
43#include <linux/nodemask.h>
44#include <linux/kexec.h>
45#include <linux/dmi.h>
46#include <linux/pfn.h>
47#include <linux/pci.h>
48#include <asm/pci-direct.h>
49#include <linux/init_ohci1394_dma.h>
50#include <linux/kvm_para.h>
51#include <linux/dma-contiguous.h>
52#include <xen/xen.h>
53#include <uapi/linux/mount.h>
54
55#include <linux/errno.h>
56#include <linux/kernel.h>
57#include <linux/stddef.h>
58#include <linux/unistd.h>
59#include <linux/ptrace.h>
60#include <linux/user.h>
61#include <linux/delay.h>
62
63#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
64#include <linux/cpufreq.h>
65#include <linux/dma-mapping.h>
66#include <linux/ctype.h>
67#include <linux/uaccess.h>
68
69#include <linux/percpu.h>
70#include <linux/crash_dump.h>
71#include <linux/tboot.h>
72#include <linux/jiffies.h>
73#include <linux/mem_encrypt.h>
74
75#include <linux/usb/xhci-dbgp.h>
76#include <video/edid.h>
77
78#include <asm/mtrr.h>
79#include <asm/apic.h>
80#include <asm/realmode.h>
81#include <asm/e820/api.h>
82#include <asm/mpspec.h>
83#include <asm/setup.h>
84#include <asm/efi.h>
85#include <asm/timer.h>
86#include <asm/i8259.h>
87#include <asm/sections.h>
88#include <asm/io_apic.h>
89#include <asm/ist.h>
90#include <asm/setup_arch.h>
91#include <asm/bios_ebda.h>
92#include <asm/cacheflush.h>
93#include <asm/processor.h>
94#include <asm/bugs.h>
95#include <asm/kasan.h>
96
97#include <asm/vsyscall.h>
98#include <asm/cpu.h>
99#include <asm/desc.h>
100#include <asm/dma.h>
101#include <asm/iommu.h>
102#include <asm/gart.h>
103#include <asm/mmu_context.h>
104#include <asm/proto.h>
105
106#include <asm/paravirt.h>
107#include <asm/hypervisor.h>
108#include <asm/olpc_ofw.h>
109
110#include <asm/percpu.h>
111#include <asm/topology.h>
112#include <asm/apicdef.h>
113#include <asm/amd_nb.h>
114#include <asm/mce.h>
115#include <asm/alternative.h>
116#include <asm/prom.h>
117#include <asm/microcode.h>
118#include <asm/kaslr.h>
119#include <asm/unwind.h>
120
121/*
122 * max_low_pfn_mapped: highest direct mapped pfn under 4GB
123 * max_pfn_mapped: highest direct mapped pfn over 4GB
124 *
125 * The direct mapping only covers E820_TYPE_RAM regions, so the ranges and gaps are
126 * represented by pfn_mapped
127 */
128unsigned long max_low_pfn_mapped;
129unsigned long max_pfn_mapped;
130
131#ifdef CONFIG_DMI
132RESERVE_BRK(dmi_alloc, 65536);
133#endif
134
135
136static __initdata unsigned long _brk_start = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
137unsigned long _brk_end = (unsigned long)__brk_base;
138
139struct boot_params boot_params;
140
141/*
142 * Machine setup..
143 */
144static struct resource data_resource = {
145 .name = "Kernel data",
146 .start = 0,
147 .end = 0,
148 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_SYSTEM_RAM
149};
150
151static struct resource code_resource = {
152 .name = "Kernel code",
153 .start = 0,
154 .end = 0,
155 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_SYSTEM_RAM
156};
157
158static struct resource bss_resource = {
159 .name = "Kernel bss",
160 .start = 0,
161 .end = 0,
162 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_SYSTEM_RAM
163};
164
165
166#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
167/* cpu data as detected by the assembly code in head_32.S */
168struct cpuinfo_x86 new_cpu_data;
169
170/* common cpu data for all cpus */
171struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly;
172EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
173
174unsigned int def_to_bigsmp;
175
176/* for MCA, but anyone else can use it if they want */
177unsigned int machine_id;
178unsigned int machine_submodel_id;
179unsigned int BIOS_revision;
180
181struct apm_info apm_info;
182EXPORT_SYMBOL(apm_info);
183
184#if defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI) || \
185 defined(CONFIG_X86_SPEEDSTEP_SMI_MODULE)
186struct ist_info ist_info;
187EXPORT_SYMBOL(ist_info);
188#else
189struct ist_info ist_info;
190#endif
191
192#else
193struct cpuinfo_x86 boot_cpu_data __read_mostly;
194EXPORT_SYMBOL(boot_cpu_data);
195#endif
196
197
198#if !defined(CONFIG_X86_PAE) || defined(CONFIG_X86_64)
199__visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features __ro_after_init;
200#else
201__visible unsigned long mmu_cr4_features __ro_after_init = X86_CR4_PAE;
202#endif
203
204/* Boot loader ID and version as integers, for the benefit of proc_dointvec */
205int bootloader_type, bootloader_version;
206
207/*
208 * Setup options
209 */
210struct screen_info screen_info;
211EXPORT_SYMBOL(screen_info);
212struct edid_info edid_info;
213EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(edid_info);
214
215extern int root_mountflags;
216
217unsigned long saved_video_mode;
218
219#define RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK 0x07FF
220#define RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG 0x8000
221#define RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG 0x4000
222
223static char __initdata command_line[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE];
224#ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
225static char __initdata builtin_cmdline[COMMAND_LINE_SIZE] = CONFIG_CMDLINE;
226#endif
227
228#if defined(CONFIG_EDD) || defined(CONFIG_EDD_MODULE)
229struct edd edd;
230#ifdef CONFIG_EDD_MODULE
231EXPORT_SYMBOL(edd);
232#endif
233/**
234 * copy_edd() - Copy the BIOS EDD information
235 * from boot_params into a safe place.
236 *
237 */
238static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
239{
240 memcpy(edd.mbr_signature, boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buffer,
241 sizeof(edd.mbr_signature));
242 memcpy(edd.edd_info, boot_params.eddbuf, sizeof(edd.edd_info));
243 edd.mbr_signature_nr = boot_params.edd_mbr_sig_buf_entries;
244 edd.edd_info_nr = boot_params.eddbuf_entries;
245}
246#else
247static inline void __init copy_edd(void)
248{
249}
250#endif
251
252void * __init extend_brk(size_t size, size_t align)
253{
254 size_t mask = align - 1;
255 void *ret;
256
257 BUG_ON(_brk_start == 0);
258 BUG_ON(align & mask);
259
260 _brk_end = (_brk_end + mask) & ~mask;
261 BUG_ON((char *)(_brk_end + size) > __brk_limit);
262
263 ret = (void *)_brk_end;
264 _brk_end += size;
265
266 memset(ret, 0, size);
267
268 return ret;
269}
270
271#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
272static void __init cleanup_highmap(void)
273{
274}
275#endif
276
277static void __init reserve_brk(void)
278{
279 if (_brk_end > _brk_start)
280 memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_brk_start),
281 _brk_end - _brk_start);
282
283 /* Mark brk area as locked down and no longer taking any
284 new allocations */
285 _brk_start = 0;
286}
287
288u64 relocated_ramdisk;
289
290#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD
291
292static u64 __init get_ramdisk_image(void)
293{
294 u64 ramdisk_image = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_image;
295
296 ramdisk_image |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_image << 32;
297
298 return ramdisk_image;
299}
300static u64 __init get_ramdisk_size(void)
301{
302 u64 ramdisk_size = boot_params.hdr.ramdisk_size;
303
304 ramdisk_size |= (u64)boot_params.ext_ramdisk_size << 32;
305
306 return ramdisk_size;
307}
308
309static void __init relocate_initrd(void)
310{
311 /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
312 u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
313 u64 ramdisk_size = get_ramdisk_size();
314 u64 area_size = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_size);
315
316 /* We need to move the initrd down into directly mapped mem */
317 relocated_ramdisk = memblock_find_in_range(0, PFN_PHYS(max_pfn_mapped),
318 area_size, PAGE_SIZE);
319
320 if (!relocated_ramdisk)
321 panic("Cannot find place for new RAMDISK of size %lld\n",
322 ramdisk_size);
323
324 /* Note: this includes all the mem currently occupied by
325 the initrd, we rely on that fact to keep the data intact. */
326 memblock_reserve(relocated_ramdisk, area_size);
327 initrd_start = relocated_ramdisk + PAGE_OFFSET;
328 initrd_end = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
329 printk(KERN_INFO "Allocated new RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
330 relocated_ramdisk, relocated_ramdisk + ramdisk_size - 1);
331
332 copy_from_early_mem((void *)initrd_start, ramdisk_image, ramdisk_size);
333
334 printk(KERN_INFO "Move RAMDISK from [mem %#010llx-%#010llx] to"
335 " [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n",
336 ramdisk_image, ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size - 1,
337 relocated_ramdisk, relocated_ramdisk + ramdisk_size - 1);
338}
339
340static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
341{
342 /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
343 u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
344 u64 ramdisk_size = get_ramdisk_size();
345 u64 ramdisk_end = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
346
347 if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
348 !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
349 return; /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
350
351 memblock_reserve(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
352}
353static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
354{
355 /* Assume only end is not page aligned */
356 u64 ramdisk_image = get_ramdisk_image();
357 u64 ramdisk_size = get_ramdisk_size();
358 u64 ramdisk_end = PAGE_ALIGN(ramdisk_image + ramdisk_size);
359 u64 mapped_size;
360
361 if (!boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader ||
362 !ramdisk_image || !ramdisk_size)
363 return; /* No initrd provided by bootloader */
364
365 initrd_start = 0;
366
367 mapped_size = memblock_mem_size(max_pfn_mapped);
368 if (ramdisk_size >= (mapped_size>>1))
369 panic("initrd too large to handle, "
370 "disabling initrd (%lld needed, %lld available)\n",
371 ramdisk_size, mapped_size>>1);
372
373 printk(KERN_INFO "RAMDISK: [mem %#010llx-%#010llx]\n", ramdisk_image,
374 ramdisk_end - 1);
375
376 if (pfn_range_is_mapped(PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_image),
377 PFN_DOWN(ramdisk_end))) {
378 /* All are mapped, easy case */
379 initrd_start = ramdisk_image + PAGE_OFFSET;
380 initrd_end = initrd_start + ramdisk_size;
381 return;
382 }
383
384 relocate_initrd();
385
386 memblock_free(ramdisk_image, ramdisk_end - ramdisk_image);
387}
388
389#else
390static void __init early_reserve_initrd(void)
391{
392}
393static void __init reserve_initrd(void)
394{
395}
396#endif /* CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD */
397
398static void __init parse_setup_data(void)
399{
400 struct setup_data *data;
401 u64 pa_data, pa_next;
402
403 pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
404 while (pa_data) {
405 u32 data_len, data_type;
406
407 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
408 data_len = data->len + sizeof(struct setup_data);
409 data_type = data->type;
410 pa_next = data->next;
411 early_memunmap(data, sizeof(*data));
412
413 switch (data_type) {
414 case SETUP_E820_EXT:
415 e820__memory_setup_extended(pa_data, data_len);
416 break;
417 case SETUP_DTB:
418 add_dtb(pa_data);
419 break;
420 case SETUP_EFI:
421 parse_efi_setup(pa_data, data_len);
422 break;
423 default:
424 break;
425 }
426 pa_data = pa_next;
427 }
428}
429
430static void __init memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data(void)
431{
432 struct setup_data *data;
433 u64 pa_data;
434
435 pa_data = boot_params.hdr.setup_data;
436 while (pa_data) {
437 data = early_memremap(pa_data, sizeof(*data));
438 memblock_reserve(pa_data, sizeof(*data) + data->len);
439 pa_data = data->next;
440 early_memunmap(data, sizeof(*data));
441 }
442}
443
444/*
445 * --------- Crashkernel reservation ------------------------------
446 */
447
448#ifdef CONFIG_KEXEC_CORE
449
450/* 16M alignment for crash kernel regions */
451#define CRASH_ALIGN (16 << 20)
452
453/*
454 * Keep the crash kernel below this limit. On 32 bits earlier kernels
455 * would limit the kernel to the low 512 MiB due to mapping restrictions.
456 * On 64bit, old kexec-tools need to under 896MiB.
457 */
458#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
459# define CRASH_ADDR_LOW_MAX (512 << 20)
460# define CRASH_ADDR_HIGH_MAX (512 << 20)
461#else
462# define CRASH_ADDR_LOW_MAX (896UL << 20)
463# define CRASH_ADDR_HIGH_MAX MAXMEM
464#endif
465
466static int __init reserve_crashkernel_low(void)
467{
468#ifdef CONFIG_X86_64
469 unsigned long long base, low_base = 0, low_size = 0;
470 unsigned long total_low_mem;
471 int ret;
472
473 total_low_mem = memblock_mem_size(1UL << (32 - PAGE_SHIFT));
474
475 /* crashkernel=Y,low */
476 ret = parse_crashkernel_low(boot_command_line, total_low_mem, &low_size, &base);
477 if (ret) {
478 /*
479 * two parts from lib/swiotlb.c:
480 * -swiotlb size: user-specified with swiotlb= or default.
481 *
482 * -swiotlb overflow buffer: now hardcoded to 32k. We round it
483 * to 8M for other buffers that may need to stay low too. Also
484 * make sure we allocate enough extra low memory so that we
485 * don't run out of DMA buffers for 32-bit devices.
486 */
487 low_size = max(swiotlb_size_or_default() + (8UL << 20), 256UL << 20);
488 } else {
489 /* passed with crashkernel=0,low ? */
490 if (!low_size)
491 return 0;
492 }
493
494 low_base = memblock_find_in_range(0, 1ULL << 32, low_size, CRASH_ALIGN);
495 if (!low_base) {
496 pr_err("Cannot reserve %ldMB crashkernel low memory, please try smaller size.\n",
497 (unsigned long)(low_size >> 20));
498 return -ENOMEM;
499 }
500
501 ret = memblock_reserve(low_base, low_size);
502 if (ret) {
503 pr_err("%s: Error reserving crashkernel low memblock.\n", __func__);
504 return ret;
505 }
506
507 pr_info("Reserving %ldMB of low memory at %ldMB for crashkernel (System low RAM: %ldMB)\n",
508 (unsigned long)(low_size >> 20),
509 (unsigned long)(low_base >> 20),
510 (unsigned long)(total_low_mem >> 20));
511
512 crashk_low_res.start = low_base;
513 crashk_low_res.end = low_base + low_size - 1;
514 insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_low_res);
515#endif
516 return 0;
517}
518
519static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
520{
521 unsigned long long crash_size, crash_base, total_mem;
522 bool high = false;
523 int ret;
524
525 total_mem = memblock_phys_mem_size();
526
527 /* crashkernel=XM */
528 ret = parse_crashkernel(boot_command_line, total_mem, &crash_size, &crash_base);
529 if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0) {
530 /* crashkernel=X,high */
531 ret = parse_crashkernel_high(boot_command_line, total_mem,
532 &crash_size, &crash_base);
533 if (ret != 0 || crash_size <= 0)
534 return;
535 high = true;
536 }
537
538 if (xen_pv_domain()) {
539 pr_info("Ignoring crashkernel for a Xen PV domain\n");
540 return;
541 }
542
543 /* 0 means: find the address automatically */
544 if (crash_base <= 0) {
545 /*
546 * Set CRASH_ADDR_LOW_MAX upper bound for crash memory,
547 * as old kexec-tools loads bzImage below that, unless
548 * "crashkernel=size[KMG],high" is specified.
549 */
550 crash_base = memblock_find_in_range(CRASH_ALIGN,
551 high ? CRASH_ADDR_HIGH_MAX
552 : CRASH_ADDR_LOW_MAX,
553 crash_size, CRASH_ALIGN);
554 if (!crash_base) {
555 pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - No suitable area found.\n");
556 return;
557 }
558
559 } else {
560 unsigned long long start;
561
562 start = memblock_find_in_range(crash_base,
563 crash_base + crash_size,
564 crash_size, 1 << 20);
565 if (start != crash_base) {
566 pr_info("crashkernel reservation failed - memory is in use.\n");
567 return;
568 }
569 }
570 ret = memblock_reserve(crash_base, crash_size);
571 if (ret) {
572 pr_err("%s: Error reserving crashkernel memblock.\n", __func__);
573 return;
574 }
575
576 if (crash_base >= (1ULL << 32) && reserve_crashkernel_low()) {
577 memblock_free(crash_base, crash_size);
578 return;
579 }
580
581 pr_info("Reserving %ldMB of memory at %ldMB for crashkernel (System RAM: %ldMB)\n",
582 (unsigned long)(crash_size >> 20),
583 (unsigned long)(crash_base >> 20),
584 (unsigned long)(total_mem >> 20));
585
586 crashk_res.start = crash_base;
587 crashk_res.end = crash_base + crash_size - 1;
588 insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &crashk_res);
589}
590#else
591static void __init reserve_crashkernel(void)
592{
593}
594#endif
595
596static struct resource standard_io_resources[] = {
597 { .name = "dma1", .start = 0x00, .end = 0x1f,
598 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
599 { .name = "pic1", .start = 0x20, .end = 0x21,
600 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
601 { .name = "timer0", .start = 0x40, .end = 0x43,
602 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
603 { .name = "timer1", .start = 0x50, .end = 0x53,
604 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
605 { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x60, .end = 0x60,
606 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
607 { .name = "keyboard", .start = 0x64, .end = 0x64,
608 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
609 { .name = "dma page reg", .start = 0x80, .end = 0x8f,
610 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
611 { .name = "pic2", .start = 0xa0, .end = 0xa1,
612 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
613 { .name = "dma2", .start = 0xc0, .end = 0xdf,
614 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO },
615 { .name = "fpu", .start = 0xf0, .end = 0xff,
616 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_IO }
617};
618
619void __init reserve_standard_io_resources(void)
620{
621 int i;
622
623 /* request I/O space for devices used on all i[345]86 PCs */
624 for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(standard_io_resources); i++)
625 request_resource(&ioport_resource, &standard_io_resources[i]);
626
627}
628
629static __init void reserve_ibft_region(void)
630{
631 unsigned long addr, size = 0;
632
633 addr = find_ibft_region(&size);
634
635 if (size)
636 memblock_reserve(addr, size);
637}
638
639static bool __init snb_gfx_workaround_needed(void)
640{
641#ifdef CONFIG_PCI
642 int i;
643 u16 vendor, devid;
644 static const __initconst u16 snb_ids[] = {
645 0x0102,
646 0x0112,
647 0x0122,
648 0x0106,
649 0x0116,
650 0x0126,
651 0x010a,
652 };
653
654 /* Assume no if something weird is going on with PCI */
655 if (!early_pci_allowed())
656 return false;
657
658 vendor = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_VENDOR_ID);
659 if (vendor != 0x8086)
660 return false;
661
662 devid = read_pci_config_16(0, 2, 0, PCI_DEVICE_ID);
663 for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(snb_ids); i++)
664 if (devid == snb_ids[i])
665 return true;
666#endif
667
668 return false;
669}
670
671/*
672 * Sandy Bridge graphics has trouble with certain ranges, exclude
673 * them from allocation.
674 */
675static void __init trim_snb_memory(void)
676{
677 static const __initconst unsigned long bad_pages[] = {
678 0x20050000,
679 0x20110000,
680 0x20130000,
681 0x20138000,
682 0x40004000,
683 };
684 int i;
685
686 if (!snb_gfx_workaround_needed())
687 return;
688
689 printk(KERN_DEBUG "reserving inaccessible SNB gfx pages\n");
690
691 /*
692 * Reserve all memory below the 1 MB mark that has not
693 * already been reserved.
694 */
695 memblock_reserve(0, 1<<20);
696
697 for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(bad_pages); i++) {
698 if (memblock_reserve(bad_pages[i], PAGE_SIZE))
699 printk(KERN_WARNING "failed to reserve 0x%08lx\n",
700 bad_pages[i]);
701 }
702}
703
704/*
705 * Here we put platform-specific memory range workarounds, i.e.
706 * memory known to be corrupt or otherwise in need to be reserved on
707 * specific platforms.
708 *
709 * If this gets used more widely it could use a real dispatch mechanism.
710 */
711static void __init trim_platform_memory_ranges(void)
712{
713 trim_snb_memory();
714}
715
716static void __init trim_bios_range(void)
717{
718 /*
719 * A special case is the first 4Kb of memory;
720 * This is a BIOS owned area, not kernel ram, but generally
721 * not listed as such in the E820 table.
722 *
723 * This typically reserves additional memory (64KiB by default)
724 * since some BIOSes are known to corrupt low memory. See the
725 * Kconfig help text for X86_RESERVE_LOW.
726 */
727 e820__range_update(0, PAGE_SIZE, E820_TYPE_RAM, E820_TYPE_RESERVED);
728
729 /*
730 * special case: Some BIOSen report the PC BIOS
731 * area (640->1Mb) as ram even though it is not.
732 * take them out.
733 */
734 e820__range_remove(BIOS_BEGIN, BIOS_END - BIOS_BEGIN, E820_TYPE_RAM, 1);
735
736 e820__update_table(e820_table);
737}
738
739/* called before trim_bios_range() to spare extra sanitize */
740static void __init e820_add_kernel_range(void)
741{
742 u64 start = __pa_symbol(_text);
743 u64 size = __pa_symbol(_end) - start;
744
745 /*
746 * Complain if .text .data and .bss are not marked as E820_TYPE_RAM and
747 * attempt to fix it by adding the range. We may have a confused BIOS,
748 * or the user may have used memmap=exactmap or memmap=xxM$yyM to
749 * exclude kernel range. If we really are running on top non-RAM,
750 * we will crash later anyways.
751 */
752 if (e820__mapped_all(start, start + size, E820_TYPE_RAM))
753 return;
754
755 pr_warn(".text .data .bss are not marked as E820_TYPE_RAM!\n");
756 e820__range_remove(start, size, E820_TYPE_RAM, 0);
757 e820__range_add(start, size, E820_TYPE_RAM);
758}
759
760static unsigned reserve_low = CONFIG_X86_RESERVE_LOW << 10;
761
762static int __init parse_reservelow(char *p)
763{
764 unsigned long long size;
765
766 if (!p)
767 return -EINVAL;
768
769 size = memparse(p, &p);
770
771 if (size < 4096)
772 size = 4096;
773
774 if (size > 640*1024)
775 size = 640*1024;
776
777 reserve_low = size;
778
779 return 0;
780}
781
782early_param("reservelow", parse_reservelow);
783
784static void __init trim_low_memory_range(void)
785{
786 memblock_reserve(0, ALIGN(reserve_low, PAGE_SIZE));
787}
788
789/*
790 * Dump out kernel offset information on panic.
791 */
792static int
793dump_kernel_offset(struct notifier_block *self, unsigned long v, void *p)
794{
795 if (kaslr_enabled()) {
796 pr_emerg("Kernel Offset: 0x%lx from 0x%lx (relocation range: 0x%lx-0x%lx)\n",
797 kaslr_offset(),
798 __START_KERNEL,
799 __START_KERNEL_map,
800 MODULES_VADDR-1);
801 } else {
802 pr_emerg("Kernel Offset: disabled\n");
803 }
804
805 return 0;
806}
807
808/*
809 * Determine if we were loaded by an EFI loader. If so, then we have also been
810 * passed the efi memmap, systab, etc., so we should use these data structures
811 * for initialization. Note, the efi init code path is determined by the
812 * global efi_enabled. This allows the same kernel image to be used on existing
813 * systems (with a traditional BIOS) as well as on EFI systems.
814 */
815/*
816 * setup_arch - architecture-specific boot-time initializations
817 *
818 * Note: On x86_64, fixmaps are ready for use even before this is called.
819 */
820
821void __init setup_arch(char **cmdline_p)
822{
823 memblock_reserve(__pa_symbol(_text),
824 (unsigned long)__bss_stop - (unsigned long)_text);
825
826 /*
827 * Make sure page 0 is always reserved because on systems with
828 * L1TF its contents can be leaked to user processes.
829 */
830 memblock_reserve(0, PAGE_SIZE);
831
832 early_reserve_initrd();
833
834 /*
835 * At this point everything still needed from the boot loader
836 * or BIOS or kernel text should be early reserved or marked not
837 * RAM in e820. All other memory is free game.
838 */
839
840#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
841 memcpy(&boot_cpu_data, &new_cpu_data, sizeof(new_cpu_data));
842
843 /*
844 * copy kernel address range established so far and switch
845 * to the proper swapper page table
846 */
847 clone_pgd_range(swapper_pg_dir + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
848 initial_page_table + KERNEL_PGD_BOUNDARY,
849 KERNEL_PGD_PTRS);
850
851 load_cr3(swapper_pg_dir);
852 /*
853 * Note: Quark X1000 CPUs advertise PGE incorrectly and require
854 * a cr3 based tlb flush, so the following __flush_tlb_all()
855 * will not flush anything because the cpu quirk which clears
856 * X86_FEATURE_PGE has not been invoked yet. Though due to the
857 * load_cr3() above the TLB has been flushed already. The
858 * quirk is invoked before subsequent calls to __flush_tlb_all()
859 * so proper operation is guaranteed.
860 */
861 __flush_tlb_all();
862#else
863 printk(KERN_INFO "Command line: %s\n", boot_command_line);
864 boot_cpu_data.x86_phys_bits = MAX_PHYSMEM_BITS;
865#endif
866
867 /*
868 * If we have OLPC OFW, we might end up relocating the fixmap due to
869 * reserve_top(), so do this before touching the ioremap area.
870 */
871 olpc_ofw_detect();
872
873 idt_setup_early_traps();
874 early_cpu_init();
875 arch_init_ideal_nops();
876 jump_label_init();
877 early_ioremap_init();
878
879 setup_olpc_ofw_pgd();
880
881 ROOT_DEV = old_decode_dev(boot_params.hdr.root_dev);
882 screen_info = boot_params.screen_info;
883 edid_info = boot_params.edid_info;
884#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
885 apm_info.bios = boot_params.apm_bios_info;
886 ist_info = boot_params.ist_info;
887#endif
888 saved_video_mode = boot_params.hdr.vid_mode;
889 bootloader_type = boot_params.hdr.type_of_loader;
890 if ((bootloader_type >> 4) == 0xe) {
891 bootloader_type &= 0xf;
892 bootloader_type |= (boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_type+0x10) << 4;
893 }
894 bootloader_version = bootloader_type & 0xf;
895 bootloader_version |= boot_params.hdr.ext_loader_ver << 4;
896
897#ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM
898 rd_image_start = boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_IMAGE_START_MASK;
899 rd_prompt = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_PROMPT_FLAG) != 0);
900 rd_doload = ((boot_params.hdr.ram_size & RAMDISK_LOAD_FLAG) != 0);
901#endif
902#ifdef CONFIG_EFI
903 if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
904 EFI32_LOADER_SIGNATURE, 4)) {
905 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &efi.flags);
906 } else if (!strncmp((char *)&boot_params.efi_info.efi_loader_signature,
907 EFI64_LOADER_SIGNATURE, 4)) {
908 set_bit(EFI_BOOT, &efi.flags);
909 set_bit(EFI_64BIT, &efi.flags);
910 }
911#endif
912
913 x86_init.oem.arch_setup();
914
915 iomem_resource.end = (1ULL << boot_cpu_data.x86_phys_bits) - 1;
916 e820__memory_setup();
917 parse_setup_data();
918
919 copy_edd();
920
921 if (!boot_params.hdr.root_flags)
922 root_mountflags &= ~MS_RDONLY;
923 init_mm.start_code = (unsigned long) _text;
924 init_mm.end_code = (unsigned long) _etext;
925 init_mm.end_data = (unsigned long) _edata;
926 init_mm.brk = _brk_end;
927
928 mpx_mm_init(&init_mm);
929
930 code_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_text);
931 code_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_etext)-1;
932 data_resource.start = __pa_symbol(_etext);
933 data_resource.end = __pa_symbol(_edata)-1;
934 bss_resource.start = __pa_symbol(__bss_start);
935 bss_resource.end = __pa_symbol(__bss_stop)-1;
936
937#ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_BOOL
938#ifdef CONFIG_CMDLINE_OVERRIDE
939 strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
940#else
941 if (builtin_cmdline[0]) {
942 /* append boot loader cmdline to builtin */
943 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, " ", COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
944 strlcat(builtin_cmdline, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
945 strlcpy(boot_command_line, builtin_cmdline, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
946 }
947#endif
948#endif
949
950 strlcpy(command_line, boot_command_line, COMMAND_LINE_SIZE);
951 *cmdline_p = command_line;
952
953 /*
954 * x86_configure_nx() is called before parse_early_param() to detect
955 * whether hardware doesn't support NX (so that the early EHCI debug
956 * console setup can safely call set_fixmap()). It may then be called
957 * again from within noexec_setup() during parsing early parameters
958 * to honor the respective command line option.
959 */
960 x86_configure_nx();
961
962 parse_early_param();
963
964 if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
965 efi_memblock_x86_reserve_range();
966#ifdef CONFIG_MEMORY_HOTPLUG
967 /*
968 * Memory used by the kernel cannot be hot-removed because Linux
969 * cannot migrate the kernel pages. When memory hotplug is
970 * enabled, we should prevent memblock from allocating memory
971 * for the kernel.
972 *
973 * ACPI SRAT records all hotpluggable memory ranges. But before
974 * SRAT is parsed, we don't know about it.
975 *
976 * The kernel image is loaded into memory at very early time. We
977 * cannot prevent this anyway. So on NUMA system, we set any
978 * node the kernel resides in as un-hotpluggable.
979 *
980 * Since on modern servers, one node could have double-digit
981 * gigabytes memory, we can assume the memory around the kernel
982 * image is also un-hotpluggable. So before SRAT is parsed, just
983 * allocate memory near the kernel image to try the best to keep
984 * the kernel away from hotpluggable memory.
985 */
986 if (movable_node_is_enabled())
987 memblock_set_bottom_up(true);
988#endif
989
990 x86_report_nx();
991
992 /* after early param, so could get panic from serial */
993 memblock_x86_reserve_range_setup_data();
994
995 if (acpi_mps_check()) {
996#ifdef CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC
997 disable_apic = 1;
998#endif
999 setup_clear_cpu_cap(X86_FEATURE_APIC);
1000 }
1001
1002 e820__reserve_setup_data();
1003 e820__finish_early_params();
1004
1005 if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
1006 efi_init();
1007
1008 dmi_scan_machine();
1009 dmi_memdev_walk();
1010 dmi_set_dump_stack_arch_desc();
1011
1012 /*
1013 * VMware detection requires dmi to be available, so this
1014 * needs to be done after dmi_scan_machine(), for the boot CPU.
1015 */
1016 init_hypervisor_platform();
1017
1018 tsc_early_init();
1019 x86_init.resources.probe_roms();
1020
1021 /* after parse_early_param, so could debug it */
1022 insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &code_resource);
1023 insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &data_resource);
1024 insert_resource(&iomem_resource, &bss_resource);
1025
1026 e820_add_kernel_range();
1027 trim_bios_range();
1028#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1029 if (ppro_with_ram_bug()) {
1030 e820__range_update(0x70000000ULL, 0x40000ULL, E820_TYPE_RAM,
1031 E820_TYPE_RESERVED);
1032 e820__update_table(e820_table);
1033 printk(KERN_INFO "fixed physical RAM map:\n");
1034 e820__print_table("bad_ppro");
1035 }
1036#else
1037 early_gart_iommu_check();
1038#endif
1039
1040 /*
1041 * partially used pages are not usable - thus
1042 * we are rounding upwards:
1043 */
1044 max_pfn = e820__end_of_ram_pfn();
1045
1046 /* update e820 for memory not covered by WB MTRRs */
1047 mtrr_bp_init();
1048 if (mtrr_trim_uncached_memory(max_pfn))
1049 max_pfn = e820__end_of_ram_pfn();
1050
1051 max_possible_pfn = max_pfn;
1052
1053 /*
1054 * This call is required when the CPU does not support PAT. If
1055 * mtrr_bp_init() invoked it already via pat_init() the call has no
1056 * effect.
1057 */
1058 init_cache_modes();
1059
1060 /*
1061 * Define random base addresses for memory sections after max_pfn is
1062 * defined and before each memory section base is used.
1063 */
1064 kernel_randomize_memory();
1065
1066#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1067 /* max_low_pfn get updated here */
1068 find_low_pfn_range();
1069#else
1070 check_x2apic();
1071
1072 /* How many end-of-memory variables you have, grandma! */
1073 /* need this before calling reserve_initrd */
1074 if (max_pfn > (1UL<<(32 - PAGE_SHIFT)))
1075 max_low_pfn = e820__end_of_low_ram_pfn();
1076 else
1077 max_low_pfn = max_pfn;
1078
1079 high_memory = (void *)__va(max_pfn * PAGE_SIZE - 1) + 1;
1080#endif
1081
1082 /*
1083 * Find and reserve possible boot-time SMP configuration:
1084 */
1085 find_smp_config();
1086
1087 reserve_ibft_region();
1088
1089 early_alloc_pgt_buf();
1090
1091 /*
1092 * Need to conclude brk, before e820__memblock_setup()
1093 * it could use memblock_find_in_range, could overlap with
1094 * brk area.
1095 */
1096 reserve_brk();
1097
1098 cleanup_highmap();
1099
1100 memblock_set_current_limit(ISA_END_ADDRESS);
1101 e820__memblock_setup();
1102
1103 reserve_bios_regions();
1104
1105 if (efi_enabled(EFI_MEMMAP)) {
1106 efi_fake_memmap();
1107 efi_find_mirror();
1108 efi_esrt_init();
1109
1110 /*
1111 * The EFI specification says that boot service code won't be
1112 * called after ExitBootServices(). This is, in fact, a lie.
1113 */
1114 efi_reserve_boot_services();
1115 }
1116
1117 /* preallocate 4k for mptable mpc */
1118 e820__memblock_alloc_reserved_mpc_new();
1119
1120#ifdef CONFIG_X86_CHECK_BIOS_CORRUPTION
1121 setup_bios_corruption_check();
1122#endif
1123
1124#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1125 printk(KERN_DEBUG "initial memory mapped: [mem 0x00000000-%#010lx]\n",
1126 (max_pfn_mapped<<PAGE_SHIFT) - 1);
1127#endif
1128
1129 reserve_real_mode();
1130
1131 trim_platform_memory_ranges();
1132 trim_low_memory_range();
1133
1134 init_mem_mapping();
1135
1136 idt_setup_early_pf();
1137
1138 /*
1139 * Update mmu_cr4_features (and, indirectly, trampoline_cr4_features)
1140 * with the current CR4 value. This may not be necessary, but
1141 * auditing all the early-boot CR4 manipulation would be needed to
1142 * rule it out.
1143 *
1144 * Mask off features that don't work outside long mode (just
1145 * PCIDE for now).
1146 */
1147 mmu_cr4_features = __read_cr4() & ~X86_CR4_PCIDE;
1148
1149 memblock_set_current_limit(get_max_mapped());
1150
1151 /*
1152 * NOTE: On x86-32, only from this point on, fixmaps are ready for use.
1153 */
1154
1155#ifdef CONFIG_PROVIDE_OHCI1394_DMA_INIT
1156 if (init_ohci1394_dma_early)
1157 init_ohci1394_dma_on_all_controllers();
1158#endif
1159 /* Allocate bigger log buffer */
1160 setup_log_buf(1);
1161
1162 if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT)) {
1163 switch (boot_params.secure_boot) {
1164 case efi_secureboot_mode_disabled:
1165 pr_info("Secure boot disabled\n");
1166 break;
1167 case efi_secureboot_mode_enabled:
1168 pr_info("Secure boot enabled\n");
1169 break;
1170 default:
1171 pr_info("Secure boot could not be determined\n");
1172 break;
1173 }
1174 }
1175
1176 reserve_initrd();
1177
1178 acpi_table_upgrade();
1179
1180 vsmp_init();
1181
1182 io_delay_init();
1183
1184 early_platform_quirks();
1185
1186 /*
1187 * Parse the ACPI tables for possible boot-time SMP configuration.
1188 */
1189 acpi_boot_table_init();
1190
1191 early_acpi_boot_init();
1192
1193 initmem_init();
1194 dma_contiguous_reserve(max_pfn_mapped << PAGE_SHIFT);
1195
1196 /*
1197 * Reserve memory for crash kernel after SRAT is parsed so that it
1198 * won't consume hotpluggable memory.
1199 */
1200 reserve_crashkernel();
1201
1202 memblock_find_dma_reserve();
1203
1204 if (!early_xdbc_setup_hardware())
1205 early_xdbc_register_console();
1206
1207 x86_init.paging.pagetable_init();
1208
1209 kasan_init();
1210
1211 /*
1212 * Sync back kernel address range.
1213 *
1214 * FIXME: Can the later sync in setup_cpu_entry_areas() replace
1215 * this call?
1216 */
1217 sync_initial_page_table();
1218
1219 tboot_probe();
1220
1221 map_vsyscall();
1222
1223 generic_apic_probe();
1224
1225 early_quirks();
1226
1227 /*
1228 * Read APIC and some other early information from ACPI tables.
1229 */
1230 acpi_boot_init();
1231 sfi_init();
1232 x86_dtb_init();
1233
1234 /*
1235 * get boot-time SMP configuration:
1236 */
1237 get_smp_config();
1238
1239 /*
1240 * Systems w/o ACPI and mptables might not have it mapped the local
1241 * APIC yet, but prefill_possible_map() might need to access it.
1242 */
1243 init_apic_mappings();
1244
1245 prefill_possible_map();
1246
1247 init_cpu_to_node();
1248
1249 io_apic_init_mappings();
1250
1251 x86_init.hyper.guest_late_init();
1252
1253 e820__reserve_resources();
1254 e820__register_nosave_regions(max_pfn);
1255
1256 x86_init.resources.reserve_resources();
1257
1258 e820__setup_pci_gap();
1259
1260#ifdef CONFIG_VT
1261#if defined(CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE)
1262 if (!efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT) || (efi_mem_type(0xa0000) != EFI_CONVENTIONAL_MEMORY))
1263 conswitchp = &vga_con;
1264#elif defined(CONFIG_DUMMY_CONSOLE)
1265 conswitchp = &dummy_con;
1266#endif
1267#endif
1268 x86_init.oem.banner();
1269
1270 x86_init.timers.wallclock_init();
1271
1272 mcheck_init();
1273
1274 register_refined_jiffies(CLOCK_TICK_RATE);
1275
1276#ifdef CONFIG_EFI
1277 if (efi_enabled(EFI_BOOT))
1278 efi_apply_memmap_quirks();
1279#endif
1280
1281 unwind_init();
1282}
1283
1284#ifdef CONFIG_X86_32
1285
1286static struct resource video_ram_resource = {
1287 .name = "Video RAM area",
1288 .start = 0xa0000,
1289 .end = 0xbffff,
1290 .flags = IORESOURCE_BUSY | IORESOURCE_MEM
1291};
1292
1293void __init i386_reserve_resources(void)
1294{
1295 request_resource(&iomem_resource, &video_ram_resource);
1296 reserve_standard_io_resources();
1297}
1298
1299#endif /* CONFIG_X86_32 */
1300
1301static struct notifier_block kernel_offset_notifier = {
1302 .notifier_call = dump_kernel_offset
1303};
1304
1305static int __init register_kernel_offset_dumper(void)
1306{
1307 atomic_notifier_chain_register(&panic_notifier_list,
1308 &kernel_offset_notifier);
1309 return 0;
1310}
1311__initcall(register_kernel_offset_dumper);
1312