1/* Copyright (C) 2003-2019 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
2 This file is part of the GNU C Library.
3 Contributed by Martin Schwidefsky <schwidefsky@de.ibm.com>, 2003.
5 The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
6 modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
7 License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
8 version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
10 The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
11 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
13 Lesser General Public License for more details.
15 You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
16 License along with the GNU C Library; if not, see
17 <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. */
19#include <errno.h>
20#include <sysdep.h>
21#include <futex-internal.h>
22#include <pthreadP.h>
25/* Wait on the barrier.
27 In each round, we wait for a fixed number of threads to enter the barrier
28 (COUNT). Once that has happened, exactly these threads are allowed to
29 leave the barrier. Note that POSIX does not require that only COUNT
30 threads can attempt to block using the barrier concurrently.
32 We count the number of threads that have entered (IN). Each thread
33 increments IN when entering, thus getting a position in the sequence of
34 threads that are or have been waiting (starting with 1, so the position
35 is the number of threads that have entered so far including the current
36 thread).
37 CURRENT_ROUND designates the most recent thread whose round has been
38 detected as complete. When a thread detects that enough threads have
39 entered to make a round complete, it finishes this round by effectively
40 adding COUNT to CURRENT_ROUND atomically. Threads that believe that their
41 round is not complete yet wait until CURRENT_ROUND is not smaller than
42 their position anymore.
44 A barrier can be destroyed as soon as no threads are blocked on the
45 barrier. This is already the case if just one thread from the last round
46 has stopped waiting and returned to the caller; the assumption is that
47 all threads from the round are unblocked atomically, even though they may
48 return at different times from the respective calls to
49 pthread_barrier_wait). Thus, a valid call to pthread_barrier_destroy can
50 be concurrent with other threads still figuring out that their round has
51 been completed. Therefore, threads need to confirm that they have left
52 the barrier by incrementing OUT, and pthread_barrier_destroy needs to wait
53 until OUT equals IN.
55 To avoid an ABA issue for futex_wait on CURRENT_ROUND and for archs with
56 32b-only atomics, we additionally reset the barrier when IN reaches
57 a threshold to avoid overflow. We assume that the total number of threads
58 is less than UINT_MAX/2, and set the threshold accordingly so that we can
59 use a simple atomic_fetch_add on IN instead of a CAS when entering. The
60 threshold is always set to the end of a round, so all threads that have
61 entered are either pre-reset threads or post-reset threads (i.e., have a
62 position larger than the threshold).
63 Pre-reset threads just run the algorithm explained above. Post-reset
64 threads wait until IN is reset to a pre-threshold value.
65 When the last pre-reset thread leaves the barrier (i.e., OUT equals the
66 threshold), it resets the barrier to its initial state. Other (post-reset)
67 threads wait for the reset to have finished by waiting until IN is less
68 than the threshold and then restart by trying to enter the barrier again.
70 We reuse the reset mechanism in pthread_barrier_destroy to get notified
71 when all threads have left the barrier: We trigger an artificial reset and
72 wait for the last pre-reset thread to finish reset, thus notifying the
73 thread that is about to destroy the barrier.
75 Blocking using futexes is straightforward: pre-reset threads wait for
76 completion of their round using CURRENT_ROUND as futex word, and post-reset
77 threads and pthread_barrier_destroy use IN as futex word.
79 Further notes:
80 * It is not simple to let some of the post-reset threads help with the
81 reset because of the ABA issues that arise; therefore, we simply make
82 the last thread to leave responsible for the reset.
83 * POSIX leaves it unspecified whether a signal handler running in a thread
84 that has been unblocked (because its round is complete) can stall all
85 other threads and prevent them from returning from the barrier. In this
86 implementation, other threads will return. However,
87 pthread_barrier_destroy will of course wait for the signal handler thread
88 to confirm that it left the barrier.
90 TODO We should add spinning with back-off. Once we do that, we could also
91 try to avoid the futex_wake syscall when a round is detected as finished.
92 If we do not spin, it is quite likely that at least some other threads will
93 have called futex_wait already. */
95__pthread_barrier_wait (pthread_barrier_t *barrier)
97 struct pthread_barrier *bar = (struct pthread_barrier *) barrier;
99 /* How many threads entered so far, including ourself. */
100 unsigned int i;
102 reset_restart:
103 /* Try to enter the barrier. We need acquire MO to (1) ensure that if we
104 observe that our round can be completed (see below for our attempt to do
105 so), all pre-barrier-entry effects of all threads in our round happen
106 before us completing the round, and (2) to make our use of the barrier
107 happen after a potential reset. We need release MO to make sure that our
108 pre-barrier-entry effects happen before threads in this round leaving the
109 barrier. */
110 i = atomic_fetch_add_acq_rel (&bar->in, 1) + 1;
111 /* These loads are after the fetch_add so that we're less likely to first
112 pull in the cache line as shared. */
113 unsigned int count = bar->count;
114 /* This is the number of threads that can enter before we need to reset.
115 Always at the end of a round. */
116 unsigned int max_in_before_reset = BARRIER_IN_THRESHOLD
119 if (i > max_in_before_reset)
120 {
121 /* We're in a reset round. Just wait for a reset to finish; do not
122 help finishing previous rounds because this could happen
123 concurrently with a reset. */
124 while (i > max_in_before_reset)
125 {
126 futex_wait_simple (&bar->in, i, bar->shared);
127 /* Relaxed MO is fine here because we just need an indication for
128 when we should retry to enter (which will use acquire MO, see
129 above). */
130 i = atomic_load_relaxed (&bar->in);
131 }
132 goto reset_restart;
133 }
135 /* Look at the current round. At this point, we are just interested in
136 whether we can complete rounds, based on the information we obtained
137 through our acquire-MO load of IN. Nonetheless, if we notice that
138 our round has been completed using this load, we use the acquire-MO
139 fence below to make sure that all pre-barrier-entry effects of all
140 threads in our round happen before us leaving the barrier. Therefore,
141 relaxed MO is sufficient. */
142 unsigned cr = atomic_load_relaxed (&bar->current_round);
144 /* Try to finish previous rounds and/or the current round. We simply
145 consider just our position here and do not try to do the work of threads
146 that entered more recently. */
147 while (cr + count <= i)
148 {
149 /* Calculate the new current round based on how many threads entered.
150 NEWCR must be larger than CR because CR+COUNT ends a round. */
151 unsigned int newcr = i - i % count;
152 /* Try to complete previous and/or the current round. We need release
153 MO to propagate the happens-before that we observed through reading
154 with acquire MO from IN to other threads. If the CAS fails, it
155 is like the relaxed-MO load of CURRENT_ROUND above. */
156 if (atomic_compare_exchange_weak_release (&bar->current_round, &cr,
157 newcr))
158 {
159 /* Update CR with the modification we just did. */
160 cr = newcr;
161 /* Wake threads belonging to the rounds we just finished. We may
162 wake more threads than necessary if more than COUNT threads try
163 to block concurrently on the barrier, but this is not a typical
164 use of barriers.
165 Note that we can still access SHARED because we haven't yet
166 confirmed to have left the barrier. */
167 futex_wake (&bar->current_round, INT_MAX, bar->shared);
168 /* We did as much as we could based on our position. If we advanced
169 the current round to a round sufficient for us, do not wait for
170 that to happen and skip the acquire fence (we already
171 synchronize-with all other threads in our round through the
172 initial acquire MO fetch_add of IN. */
173 if (i <= cr)
174 goto ready_to_leave;
175 else
176 break;
177 }
178 }
180 /* Wait until the current round is more recent than the round we are in. */
181 while (i > cr)
182 {
183 /* Wait for the current round to finish. */
184 futex_wait_simple (&bar->current_round, cr, bar->shared);
185 /* See the fence below. */
186 cr = atomic_load_relaxed (&bar->current_round);
187 }
189 /* Our round finished. Use the acquire MO fence to synchronize-with the
190 thread that finished the round, either through the initial load of
191 CURRENT_ROUND above or a failed CAS in the loop above. */
192 atomic_thread_fence_acquire ();
194 /* Now signal that we left. */
195 unsigned int o;
196 ready_to_leave:
197 /* We need release MO here so that our use of the barrier happens before
198 reset or memory reuse after pthread_barrier_destroy. */
199 o = atomic_fetch_add_release (&bar->out, 1) + 1;
200 if (o == max_in_before_reset)
201 {
202 /* Perform a reset if we are the last pre-reset thread leaving. All
203 other threads accessing the barrier are post-reset threads and are
204 incrementing or spinning on IN. Thus, resetting IN as the last step
205 of reset ensures that the reset is not concurrent with actual use of
206 the barrier. We need the acquire MO fence so that the reset happens
207 after use of the barrier by all earlier pre-reset threads. */
208 atomic_thread_fence_acquire ();
209 atomic_store_relaxed (&bar->current_round, 0);
210 atomic_store_relaxed (&bar->out, 0);
211 /* When destroying the barrier, we wait for a reset to happen. Thus,
212 we must load SHARED now so that this happens before the barrier is
213 destroyed. */
214 int shared = bar->shared;
215 atomic_store_release (&bar->in, 0);
216 futex_wake (&bar->in, INT_MAX, shared);
218 }
220 /* Return a special value for exactly one thread per round. */
221 return i % count == 0 ? PTHREAD_BARRIER_SERIAL_THREAD : 0;
223weak_alias (__pthread_barrier_wait, pthread_barrier_wait)